There are a number of official figures in Spain of around 47ºC, including at Écija , also known as the 'sartén or frying pan of Andalucia' in the province of Seville, with 47.0ºC in 1959 and again 1967, and Seville itself in 1946, also with 47ºC, Badajoz: 47.0ºC in August 1964 and Cordoba: with 46.6ºC on 23-7-1995. The highest absolute temperature appears to be Murcia more recently with 47.8°C on 29-7-1976, though weather people suspect that temperatures of 50ºC have been reached at points in the Guadalquivir basin. Many books including the Spanish version of the Guiness Book of Records give the absolute record in Spain as the 51ºC recorded in Seville on 30th July 1876. This, however, is not accepted by experts as it was made using suspect equipment. Doubts also hang over the 48.8ºC recorded in Cazalla (Seville) on 30th August 1926.
By year-round average the warmest capitals are Almería with 18.5ºC, Huelva with 18.3ºC and Cadiz with 18.2ºC. Probably the consistently hottest areas are the Vegas Bajas del Guadiana ( Badajoz ) and Guadalquivir Valley (provincies of Seville and Cordoba ).
In the Canaries, average annual temperatures are around 21ºC along the coast and at low altitudes while at the Izaña Observatory (Tenerife) at 2,367 m. high, the average yearly temperature drops to 9.7ºC, lower than the coolest capitals of the Peninsula. Temperature records, while not as high as the Peninsula are around 44.0ºC.
The opposite end of the scale is more complex as altitude, something not lacking in Europe's second highest country, plays such an important role in bringing down the temperature. Forget the clichés of sunny Spain. If you sleep out in Central Spain in January you will probably die. Both Castillas have some 30 odd records of temperatures of under -20. The official record of the lowest temperature in Spain is at Estany Gento in Lerida with -32ºC in 1956, though once again experts suspect that some of the peaks in the Aragonese Pyrenees have fallen as low as -40ºC. Perhaps the coldest land in Spain, if altitude is taken into account, is the relatively low Sistema Ibérico between Zaragoza, Teruel and Guadalajara. Here, at the Calamocha and Molina de Aragón weather stations, records of -28ºC to -30ºC have been recorded. I am reminded of a student I had from Zaragoza who was a lingerie salesman. His car broke down in a blizzard on the road to Teruel. He saved himself by putting on dozens of tights.
The coldest regional capitals in Spain are in Castilla y León ( Burgos yearly of average 9.9ºC, Avila con 10.4ºC and Soria 10.5ºC.)
Figures are taken from 'Climas y tiempos de España' by Javier Martín and Jorge Olcina, 2001 and the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia at http://www.inm.es/ .