• Historical deforestation and the more recent use of pesticides since the 1960’s have eliminated reptiles and amphibians directly, and indirectly through loss of prey. Other factors include widespread drainage of wetlands, fall of groundwater levels, rerouting and damming of rivers, the removal of countless mini-water holes, and fire and general desertification. Another factor has been the spread of a number of harmful invasive species such as the American crab ( Procambarus clarkii ) which have decimated newt tadpoles and the release of American bullfrogs which have had a huge impact on local ecologies. (See also Ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the decline of amphibian populations in Central Spain (English)
  • There are 25 native species of amphibian in mainland Spain and the Balearics.

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The Iberianature guide to Spain

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  • Birds
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  • Mammals
  • Other wildlife
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