I enjoyed this piece by Hsieh Ch’ing kao on Spain and Portugal from the ever weird kalebeul. More here on his Hai-Lu (1783-1797) on Portugal here.
Spain “…is said to be north-northwest of Portugal and could be reached by sailing in that direction for about eight or nine days from Portugal [one of Hsieh’s mistakes in indicating directions.] The area of this country is larger than that of Portugal: the people are fierce and wicked. Catholicism is the main religion. Its products are gold, silver, copper, iron, wine, glass, and watches, etc. The silver dollars used in China are manufactured in this country. “